Quality control ensures the maintenance or improvement of a product and its manufacturing stages, which is essential in the 21st century industry. In this article we explain what we mean when we talk about quality control, the different types and their techniques.
What is quality control and what is its purpose?
Quality control is a verification process that tries to measure and guarantee that both the product and the various factors involved in the production activities comply with the regulations and are within the final specifications, ensuring its quality. To determine that this is the case, a series of tests are applied at each stage of manufacturing.
First, the raw materials are analyzed and samples are taken along the entire chain, and then the final product is tested.
Through the various checks at the different stages of manufacturing, it is possible to identify where there is a problem and correct it.
The aim of quality control is to help any type of company or industry to meet the demand for better products, ensuring zero defects and compliance with ISO 9000 standards that seek to level the playing field.
Analysis and quality control in the company
The quality control used in a given company depends largely on the product or industry to which we refer. For example, the quality control of a processed food that is carried out in food industries includes ensuring that the product does not make the consumer sick, so these types of industries will focus on performing chemical and microbiological testing of samples from both the production line and the ready-to-eat food. Similarly, manufacturers will also focus their efforts on improving other characteristics – such as appearance, texture or taste – that are key to consumer perception.
In contrast, in automotive manufacturing, quality control focuses its efforts on improving how parts fit together and interact, and on ensuring that engines run smoothly and efficiently. Meanwhile, in the electronics industry, the flow of electricity will be measured. In this sense, there are different quality parameters that can be applied in production processes such as: functionality, durability, efficiency, safety, the appearance of the final product or consumer satisfaction, among others.
Types of quality control in industry
There are several methods for measuring quality control performance. These are the most common:
This graph represents whether the products or processes analyzed meet the expected specifications and, if not, the degree to which they deviate from those specifications. The variance shows whether the tested attribute is acceptable and determines whether defects occur randomly or systematically.
Presents an approach that emphasizes the role of product research, design and development in reducing the occurrence of defects and failures and failure modes in materials. The Taguchi Method considers design to be essential in the manufacturing process and seeks to eliminate errors before they can occur.
Comprehensive quality control
It consists of examining and evaluating all the parts involved in the creation of a product. This requires obtaining the data involved in the manufacturing process and meticulously examining each element.
Quality control techniques in production processes
Implementing a quality control system in a production environment requires planning and effort to ensure that it is done correctly. In this regard, there is a wide variety of quality control techniques that can be applied in industrial processes. Here are the most important ones:
This is a set of principles focused on ensuring that a product and all its characteristics are designed to meet customer needs and are free of defects.
Statistical Process Control (SPC)
This technique is based on tracking production metrics by monitoring quality at each step. This makes it possible to better identify problems and solve them at early stages.
Lean is a process improvement strategy focused on effective planning and management. It starts from the idea of minimizing any waste and maximizing product efficiency. These lean manufacturing tactics are very useful for detecting defects in quality control.
Total Productive Maintenance (TPM)
Ensures and improves production integrity through the use of machine, equipment, process and material innovation. By using a proactive approach, problems are identified early and eliminated as soon as possible. It is a well-established way to improve manufacturing production systems, and works very well as part of an overall quality control strategy in most environments.
Total Quality Management (TQM)
Implies its presence in all areas: in products, designs, procedures and systems. A fundamental factor considering the consideration that quality has reached as a means to ensure customer satisfaction and reduce costs.
At Infinitia we know how important it is to design a product with the maximum guarantee, that is why we value the quality of your product and we help you to improve it. Contact our materials innovation team to offer you the best solution.