Tensile test and its application to materials

The tensile test on metals is a fundamental procedure for discovering flaws in materials and testing their essential properties. In this article, we will explain what a tensile test is, focusing on tensile tests on metals, what is its purpose and its application in industry.

What is a tensile test?

A tensile test is an engineering test and is a destructive material science in which a controlled stress is applied to a specimen until it fails completely.

The tensile test is one of the most common mechanical testing techniques and is used to find out what strength and resistance a material has, especially for its industrial application.

What is the function of a tensile test?

This test method is used to determine the performance strength, ultimate tensile strength, ductility, stress hardening characteristics, Young’s modulus or longitudinal elasticity and Poisson’s coefficient of materials.

Tensile tests provide details of a material’s mechanical tensile properties. In addition, tensile tests are those that best verify the behavior of metals. The properties can be plotted on a graph, such as the stress curve, which serves to determine the point at which the material failed.

Tensile test What is it used for?

Tensile tests have a wide variety of uses in the materials industry:

  • Selecting materials for a given application.
  • Predicting how a material will behave under different forces.
  • To determine if the requirements of a specification, contract or standard are met.
  • Demonstrate proof of concept for a new product.
  • Test the characteristics of a proposed patent and new material innovations.
  • Provide standard quality assurance data for scientific and engineering functions
  • Compare the technical data of the different material options.
  • Material tests to provide evidence for a given use.

Application of the tensile test in the laboratory

The tensile test of metals is performed according to ASTM E8M. It consists of subjecting a metallic specimen to a tensile force. In this way, we can study how ductile materials behave based on their properties.

It allows us to check their load bearing capacity and typical deformation. From the load and the elongation of the specimen, the stress vs deformation diagram is made, by which we can analyze and compare the practical and theoretical behavior of the specimens. Metallic properties such as proportionality limit, yield point, ultimate tensile strength or breaking load are also determined.

Properties measured in the tensile test of metals

Yield strength or yield stress: the stress applied to the material at which deformation begins to occur.

Tensile strength: a value that indicates the ability of a metal to resist deformation and failure when loads are applied to it.

Limit of Proportionality: value of the stress below which the elongation is proportional to the applied load.

Final tensile strength: is the maximum stress to which a specimen is exposed during testing. The final tensile strength is one of the most important properties we can determine about a material.

Yield Point: Stress where the deformation increases without increasing the stress. Only a few materials (especially steel) have a yield point and usually only under tensile loading.

In conclusion, tensile tests are basic to predict how a material, for example a metal, will behave if it is to be used in industrial matters. In this sense, it is essential to know its limits and properties. Therefore, if you are looking for help to determine the behavior of your materials, you can contact our team.